Maggie Tarpley’s Miscellaneous

Welcome to My New Blogging Blog.

“If I ruled the world” is a favorite saying of mine so I’ve decided to blog and share my hopes and ideas for the world that will be the home of my grandchildren–a world with clean air, clean and sufficient food and water, shelter, education, and peace for all its inhabitants.

Bamboo sculpture in Rwanda

As this blog will be an exercise in regularity, I will have the most recent update listed here so that readers can scroll down and find the latest entries–will try to date entries:

Updated 18 February 2020

These musings will be random as something in a book or a conversation or a movie or video prompts a post–might be educational, advisory, just off the top of my head or even political or theological………..maybe even a recipe for folks working internationally as well as friends in North America!

18 February 2020–The past few weeks included the impeachment without conviction (no surprise) and continued disarray for Democrats as they (we) try to pick a candidate to face President Trump. Sad to watch the Senate do a rubberstamp rather than seek to examine the evidence. John Bolton’s book will be a best seller but some reports of censorship are worrisome. The Bloomberg movement with many millions of personal money invested in the campaign for the most powerful position in the world is actually quite understandable–if someone has enough money. Even moving into 2nd place in polls and qualifying for the debate tomorrow is late-breaking news as I watch CNN from Botswana. The coronavirus outbreak leads many news reports as quarantines continue and airports around the world are checking passenger temperatures as they seek to enter a country. On Friday, I returned from a committee trip to Tunis via Paris from Botswana and observed health checks in the airports with additional forms to fill out here in Botswana.

On the plane the only movie I watched was “Jojo Rabbit,” about a young Nazi youth recruit in the last months of World War II–no spoilers but I highly recommend it–6 Academy Award nominations with one win for adapted screenplay. Some of the reviews I read were mixed but I thought it was worth its recognition.

Check out the recent 2020 Newbery and Caldecott award winners in children’s literature, especially during Black History month:

New Kid by Jerry Craft— the first graphic novel to receive the Newbery
The Undefeated by Kwame Alexander and illustrated by Kadir Nelson, won the Caldecott Medal

I’ve sent copies to family and friends and am hearing good reports.

28 January 2020–Cursive handwriting and breastfeeding: What are common denominators? Both are related to good starts–one in school and one in life. Some studies show that starting cursive rather than printing in K-1 is related to improvement in learning to read. Myriad studies encourage breastfeeding from birth through 6 months or longer if possible. Cursive writing hasn’t made the cut in all the testing that is worshipped by current educational institutions but one study showed slightly better scores on SAT essays written in cursive (https://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/03/weekinreview/03lewin.html).

So back to breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is a choice–not every woman even wants to –or is able to–breastfeed. Breastfeeding is a healthy choice, but breastfeeding in public continues to annoy, embarrass, and be “seen” as something to be done behind closed doors–likely more for the sensibilities of those who might see it happening rather than the mothers committed to giving their children a healthy start. Don’t forget the convenience factors of freedom from formula and cleaning equipment. Getting clean and appropriate spaces to pump has gotten traction in many workplaces but only as an uphill effort. Breastfeeding in public is legal in all 50 states (https://www.whattoexpect.com/first-year/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-in-public/) but news reports declare pushback in public spaces.

Hopefully, the following article is a satire or send-up—if not, it very much explains why folks may treat breastfeeding women without respect (https://www.theodysseyonline.com/why-women-should-never-breastfeed-in-public). Children need to see public breastfeeding–my sample of one is that when I was 7 or 8 years old, I was riding a public bus to my elementary school in San Diego and a woman was breastfeeding her baby. I never forgot it and I became a breastfeeding convert at age 7 or 8–and never waivered.

My soapbox oratory is based on my belief that not just legalizing public breastfeeding but encouraging it will hopefully lead more folks to respect and promote it, not just tolerate it.

Last words: Encourage schools or home schooling parents to bring back cursive handwriting and be an advocate for breastfeeding in public. Maybe these are not equal issues but I only promised random thoughts–not logical.

22 January 2020–As the Trump Impeachment trial begins, the Davos World Economic Forum concludes, sugar is still subsidized (see Fox News https://www.foxnews.com/opinion/john-stossel-welfare-for-the-rich-the-incredible-truth-about-americas-multibillion-dollar-sugar-program), fossil fuels continue receiving government tax breaks (https://www.eesi.org/papers/view/fact-sheet-fossil-fuel-subsidies-a-closer-look-at-tax-breaks-and-societal-costs), and attacks on the Affordable Health Care Act abound despite evidence of its effectiveness, the world keeps rotating.

Leeman Tarpley Kessler granted permission for his Martin Luther King Day, Mt. Vernon, Ohio, address to be shared:

Leeman Kessler, Mayor of Gambier January 20 at 7:46 PM

My friend was kind enough to write down my speech from today’s Dr. King Breakfast at MVNU.

“In 1962, when my father was 17, he had his name added to a list – a list of enemies of the state of Mississippi. He was protesting a segregationist speaker along with his friends and they refused to stand when Dixie was played. Three years later, my grandfather was put on that same list – this time for demanding justice, for defending another pastor who had been shot in the back of the head for preaching against segregation.

This list was compiled by the state of Mississippi’s Sovereignty Commission, was paid for by taxpayers, and this list would go on to include over 87,000 individuals over the 20 years it was compiled. The list was used to intimidate, it was used to harass, it was used in coordination with local government and hate groups to get people fired, to get people evicted, to drive them out. And it was all done in the name of community and fighting back against perceived chaos.

And I tell this story to people for two reasons: the first is to show that even though my family benefited from the power of white supremacy, the power of segregation, no one was immune to the threat that racism requires, the violence that white supremacy demands. And the second thing is to show that this work was work. It was paid for, it was active.

I think it is very easy for us to think about racism, to think about white supremacy as some sort of natural state – something that happens in the past, we can forgive it because its just the way things are and it takes work to push past it. But that’s not true; hatred requires work, active work. We know that from the way that propaganda was pushed about the lost cause myth in order to justify a war to defend chattel slavery. The same lost cause myth was used to defend white supremacist domestic terrorism for decades. We know it took active work to do redlining. We knew it took active work to create sundown towns, to put racial quotas in immigration.

A good friend of mine is an economic historian and he has a line I think about a lot, which is that “there is no place in America that got as white as it did by accident.” It took work. And because it took work to build, it means that it takes work to dismantle. You can’t be passive; you can’t just hope it will go away. We see the work of hatred; the work of racism still at play today and there is still a great deal of work left to be done.

As an elected official, I have to remember that all of this work that happened to build white supremacy, to build segregation, it all happened with the complicity of government – on the federal level, on the state level, and on the local level. People of good faith who thought they were building community, people of good faith who thought they were building bulwarks against chaos, they turned a blind eye to injustice, or used the strict letter of the law to enforce injustice.

And so as I look at my own role in government, I have to ask myself how am I confusing chaos with community. How am I allowing my own privilege, my own prejudices to conflate these two? And I think the answer to comes down to “who is my neighbor?” That is the greatest defense against this confusion. The broader you can define who your neighbor is, the broader you can define who belongs, the richer a world you’re going to create. I think that is the important work that we all have to do – and it is work, it is hard. It has taken centuries to build up this racist structure; it may take centuries to tear it down. But that is the work that we’ve been given to do. God bless.”

11 January 2020–What a crazy 9 days since I blogged–brink of war, another airplane tragedy, horrible fires, impeachment—hard to know what to share that doesn’t seem trivial–watching a rerun of the Golden Globe awards, reading a couple of Swedish mysteries as well as the sequel to the Handmaid’s Tale, attending medical education meetings, angsting over the launch of a training program, watching a Facebook video of a son’s swearing in as the mayor of an Ohio village, etc., etc, etc.

Did you know that defense contractor and weapons maker stock prices rose when the Iranian general was killed? (https://www.commondreams.org/news/2020/01/04/if-you-are-wondering-who-benefits-weapons-makers-see-stocks-surge-trump-moves-closer). Did u know oil prices rose at the same time? (https://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory/oil-prices-surge-stocks-slip-us-kills-iran-68050405). If this doesn’t bother you, I believe you should think harder about the consequences (other than profits if u invest in these things). If we think outside the box, maybe the companies that make weapons of mass destruction should return all profits to the US treasury to be used for peaceful infrastructure projects rather than enriching shareholders. But who would invest if there was no profit? Do we ever wonder if the endless wars we’ve been involved in are encouraged by those industries that profit? Even as a child, I wondered if companies would make weapons if it was nonprofit.

And while we are thinking outside the box, let’s bring back the draft for women as well as men this time. Why shouldn’t women have opportunities such as post-service education?

Would we fight endless wars if we thought our educated middle-class kids had to go? Currently it is a choice, but the multiple tours forced on many folks contribute to PTSD and catastrophic injuries and family problems from long separations and put a huge burden on the VA and other veteran services who often are not provided the financial support deserved that allows them to serve those who have sacrificed so much. Regardless of how one feels about war, we are obligated to do our best for those who serve, even if we must pay more taxes.

A tax cut that primarily benefits those who already are financially comfortable is wrong–morally repugnant and very unchristian from my perspective– if it means cutting back on services to the hungry, the young, the poorly educated, those medically unserved or underserved. And don’t you dare tell me that Canadians are unhappy with their health care system. I have both family and friends who think it is terrific–not perfect–but still to be envied by those in the US who have little or no coverage. Look up where the US falls in health indicators–if you think we are excellent by the world’s standards, you would be mistaken. We are No. 28 (https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(16)31467-2.pdf). Slovenia and Greece among others are higher than we are but we did beat out Estonia.

2 January 2020–Happy new year! Not one to do annual resolutions, this post will share about a resolution from 10 years ago–regular exercise. Every internet feed and news article touted regular exercise, something I interpreted personally as “lifestyle exercising.” I walked fast, used the stairs at work and home, and didn’t try to park next to the store entrance–this worked up to a point but wasn’t designed for flexibility. Yoga became a ubiquitous term from the football field to corporate offices. One week a notice appeared in our church bulletin that yoga classes would be offered at church. Since I worship convenience and church was walking distance from work, I started to go and the time I picked–mid morning once a week–was so poorly attended, I often had private lessons.

Eventually, the class moved to Wednesday at 6 pm and was the exercise highlight of my week. After moving to Kenya and then Rwanda in 2016, finding a class was not so easy but I did find a regular gathering in Rwanda. Then Botswana in 2018 offered classes at a local gym but the times (6pm or 630pm) were awful for someone who could walk over in daylight but needed a taxi to get home in the dark. Why I never thought of YouTube in my first 2 or 3 years, I’ll never know; but when I finally explored that option, I found my teacher and have 30-minute workouts every morning in our apartment–free!

Why some Christians have no problems with Christmas trees and evergreen decorations that were once likely symbols of non-Christian faith systems and think yoga exercising is a form of non-Christian worship, I don’t fully understand. I just googled Christian views of yoga–some declare that it shouldn’t be practiced by Christians—but stretching is good and healthy–one friend calls it “nonreligious yoga”–guess that works and I’ll try to use that term in appropriate settings.

29 December–How many folks know what a VPN is? Even though several weeks ago I purchased a 3-year contract for VPN service (80% off–couldn’t resist even though I wasn’t exactly sure how it worked but if I did figure it out, it was a bargain), just now I was forced to google to learn that VPN means “virtual private network.” After hearing folks say that VPNs were handy when living or traveling internationally, I still didn’t know I needed one until my quest to secure a way to stream the College Football Championship games for John. First, I asked around about Gaborone, Botswana, sports bars or some American group that watches U.S. sports but couldn’t locate any so was forced to go to Plan B. I know my Nashville cable carrier allows streaming of stations they broadcast, so if I could reach that, I could get the games. One problem with living in Africa is that web sites recognize where we are located when accessing sites and we often get blocked for services such as streaming. VPNs appear to disguise the user’s location–I can actually choose where to report my location–voila–a “virtual” location.

John watched much of the Memphis–Penn State game last night and this morning at 6:30 am our time (CAT) got to see the 4th quarter of the electrifying Clemson-Ohio State 4th quarter with the last second win for the Tigers. The time difference (8 hours ahead of Nashville) causes issues as most important games are in the middle of the night here.

28 December–Several days behind in blogging as I think about watching “White Christmas” on Christmas Day via Netflix. Never had watched it before although the title song has been heard hundreds of times over the years. What a fun movie! Shows that violence, profanity, and nudity aren’t required for entertainment—well, at least for some of us. Most of our colleagues and friends travel during these holidays but we stayed put–our only gift exchange was a bag of peanut M&Ms.

Every Saturday, John and I enjoy a hot breakfast. Today was easy pancakes (I cup self-rising flour, I cup plain yogurt and 2 eggs) with homemade maple syrup (2 cups sugar and 1 cup water brought to a boil and add 1 t. maple extract and 1 t. vanilla) and fresh blueberries (lots being grown in Africa for export–blue gold). Had to order the maple extract from Amazon in November because our Nashville stores don’t seem to stock it any more.

23 December–Four twenty-something women and I formed the audience for the 2:15 pm matinee showing of “Frozen II.” No children in attendance but someone left a booster seat in the chair next to mine so apparently some small-stature types have seen it. The storyline seemed a bit complex for the very young and some of the scenes were intense but I got my money’s worth of entertainment as well as getting to keeping up with what my grandkids (and kids) are likely watching. Perhaps hoping for discernable character development in a Disney animated feature was a stretch, but likely those who watched the first film innumerable times (I heard rumors it was on a loop in some homes–no hard data) knew what was going on better than I did. By the end, I think I figured most of it out. Presently, “Coco” remains my favorite animated film of the past decade–actually brilliant.

22 December–Who knew Adam Driver, a.k.a. Kylo Ren of the “Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker” film viewed yesterday, stars in the Golden Globe-acclaimed “Marriage Story”? Just watched “Marriage Story” on Netflix (yes, we get it in Botswana) and then checked all the 2020 Golden Globe nominees–MS got 6 including Driver and his co-star Scarlett Johansson! Now that I live within walking distance of a theatre with first-run movies and have Netflix and Prime, I’m going to try to keep up with hyped movies–so far, I’m enjoying those I’ve watched.

21 December (shortest/longest day of the year, depending on hemisphere)–Guess we just returned from our Christmas present to each other — “Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker.” This film got a highly positive review from John–“Maybe my favorite Star Wars.” If strong women, diversity of cast and characters, fast-paced action, video-game-style violence, and space warp travel ring your bell, go see this entertaining movie. Here in Botswana, we shared the 11 am showing at our nearby shopping mall cinema with one or two other folks–but it was released on the 16th so maybe there were long lines then. No spoilers in this review (unless u count above comments). We always stay through all the credits–those hundreds of folks (maybe thousands) who worked in some capacity deserve someone to see their names—plus we saw the real ending of “Black Panther” that a number of folks missed when we stayed through the credits. Won’t tell u if staying through the credits reveals further action.

20 Dec 2019–What a week!! Last week elections in Britain that appear to bring Brexit closer and the Weds in the US when the House voted to impeach President Trump. Now drama shifts to our Senate to see who will support conviction or acquittal (just had to check spelling on acquittal :)). No matter one’s party, politics, or beliefs, the news of what is happening in our country and around the globe is disheartening!!

Now if only automatic weapons could be banned–as one who grew up in a “gun” home where hunting was a norm and rifles and shotguns were part of the furniture, the idea of automatic weapons as sport arms was unthinkable. I even have my NRA perfect target from 4-H camp rifle range.

Greta Tintin Eleonora Ernman Thunberg as Person of the Year offered a spark of hope that some people see climate change as a coming disaster for our children and grandchildren. Just learned her middle names and “Tintin” reminds me of the graphic novels (we called them comics) about Tintin the adventurer.

First blog–Since we are currently living and working in Africa, my first rant will involve the need to recognize the sources of African academic literature including medical and scientific resources that may not be found in Western databases, African Journals Online (https://www.ajol.info/index.php) should be bookmarked by anyone doing research on African topics. Useful resources include

Dusk on the Masai Mara

More Rants

On-site child care in hospitals should offer hours that fit with the schedules of medical professionals who work 7 days a week and often start before 6 am and are on duty till late in the evening. Article after article on the difficulties faced by women physicians with children almost always mention–often deep in the text–that concern about child care is one of the heavy burdens bourn by these professionals. The two-physician couples are increasing common and acceptable child care is often an issue. In 2013, at Vanderbilt we published an article showing that residents, male and female, would rank higher a program guaranteeing child care for trainees–The case for on-site child care in residency training and afterward (full text at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771163/).

Climate change is real and scientifically provable. Why do we trust science for medical advancements or improved aircraft but deny the obvious evidence of melting glaciers and ice sheets, rising sea levels, and increasing average temperatures. The UN Climate Action Summit opened today in New York–23 September 2019. The Chinese are building a solar farm each day–what is the US doing? Although I’ve committed to low-energy light bulbs, my air flight carbon footprint is embarrassing. Even though the planes will fly without me, I am part of the problem. We have cut back drastically on consuming beef, chicken, and other meats, but here in Botswana, recycling takes a great deal of effort and I don’t.

Admitting the truth about climate change seems to be related to how it affects short-term profits rather than the future of global inhabitants, especially the poor and powerless. This article from the Los Angeles Times in 2015 might be of interest–

Big Oil Braced for Global Warming While It Fought Regulations By Amy Lieberman And Susanne Rust (http://graphics.latimes.com/oil-operations/) Dec. 31, 2015

Water—”If it’s yellow, let it mellow. If it’s brown, flush it down.”  Inspired by living in an area where water to flush wasn’t always in the commode tank and might come by pouring a bucket in the bowl,  a friend needlepointed this aphorism for us many years ago and I still have it tucked away in a bathroom closet in Nashville.  A reminder of times past.

In much of urban North America, water seems limitless as well as cheap but in many places in the world, folks struggle to haul water from standpipes or buy it from water trucks.  Why do we think we have to flush every time? Seems like it’s a rule from early toilet training or from kindergarten where it might make some sense.  In our own homes, maybe we should rethink the yellow vs. brown condition. 

Another frightening fact is the amount of water required to produce certain food items including meat.  The Guardian (UK) article might be a place to start  — How much water is needed to produce food and how much do we waste?https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2013/jan/10/how-much-water-food-production-waste

Some think wars of the future will be over water, not oil or other mineral resources.  Maybe water is already a factor.

Book Recommendations:

John Killinger’s Seven Things They Don’t Teach You in Seminary— Reads like a good novel for pastors–past and present–and their families, for PKs (preacher’s kids), MKs (missionary kids), and all folks who have been active in mainline or evangelical churches.

Lee Child’s Jack Reacher book series–all are great reads–well written and entertaining.

Although this story about strong women in Mississippi came out 10 years ago, The Help by Kathryn Stockett is worth rereading (or reading for the first time) as we continue to see race issues play out daily in the news. The movie adaptation received several Academy Award nominations and might be an acceptable substitute.

Recent Movies

In order to keep up with my kids and my friends who enjoy movies, I occasionally catch a recent release. In the past few months I’ve actually gone to the theatre to see “Avengers: End Game,” “Once Upon a Time…in Hollywood,” and “Joker.” See above for more recently-viewed films.

Netflix offers fairly recent movies as does my cable TV system here in Botswana. Just watched on Netflix Meryl Streep in “The Laundromat,” a depressing but fascinating 2019 dramatization of the 2015 Panama Papers story wherein global financial crime touches all of us. The most depressing aspect is how the rich and powerful avoid paying their fair share of taxes.

Highly recommended is the 2017 “The Children Act” with Emma Thompson as a British judge in family court. Issues addressed involve medical ethics, religious concerns, personal relationships and boundaries therein.

Watched “Joker” in the theatre because of all the hype and varied reviews. Very dark–not exactly entertaining but the Joaquin Phoenix acting is superb. Then a few days later I saw him on the plane in “Walk the Line” that earned him an Oscar nomination. Guess I’m out of touch with entertainment culture—I didn’t know who he was until the “Joker.” Extraordinary performer.

Viewed the new “Lion King” on the plane–animals are realistic but it is not better than the cartoon or the stage play. The music was especially disappointing.

Adapting Favorite Recipes and Using Cookbooks from Africa

Living in Africa the past 3 years has encouraged me to adapt my favorite easy slow cooker recipes for a place where ready-to-use foods aren’t always available. One recipe , Nigerian Pepper Soup, has evolved from totally from scratch to totally from ready to use and back to a hybrid. At the beginning the recipe came from a Nigerian friend and terrific cook and involved peeling, chopping, and food processor grinding. Eventually, I was using cans of tomatoes with chilis, frozen onions and green peppers. Back in Africa meant a return to peeling and chopping if cans and frozen items weren’t available. Borrowed a slow cooker in Kenya but found a 220-volt cooker online in the US for use in Rwanda. Sadly, it was broken in my luggage on the way to Botswana; but fortunately, they are available for sale in Botswana, so it was my first kitchen purchase.

Efo (Nigerian Spinach)  
1   32 oz. bag of frozen chopped spinach
2    10 oz. bags frozen chopped onions
1     T.  olive oil or other oil
Salt to taste
Pepper to taste  

Heat oil in large sauce pan.  Add onions and sauté until thawed.  Sprinkle generous amount of salt and pepper on onions.  Stir in spinach and add more salt and pepper.  Reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 45 minutes—hour, stirring regularly to avoid sticking.
Efo (Nigerian Spinach)  
4 or 5 bunches fresh spinach, chopped
4 chopped fresh onions
1     T.  olive oil or other oil
Salt to taste
Pepper to taste  

Remove stems from spinach before chopping leaves. Heat oil in large sauce pan.  Add onions and sauté until thawed.  Sprinkle generous amount of salt and pepper on onions.  Stir in spinach and add more salt and pepper.  Reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 45 minutes—hour, stirring regularly to avoid sticking.
Nigerian Groundnut Soup (Vegetarian)  
4 15 oz. cans of tomatoes and green chilies
8 oz. tomato paste
6 bouillon cubes (beef or vegetable)
10 oz. frozen chopped onions
2 or 3 oz. frozen chopped green peppers
½ to 1 c. smooth or chunky peanut butter  

Dump all ingredients in a large slow cooker and cook on low all day—8 hours or so. Serve over rice or Nigerian yam if you have it.      
Nigerian Groundnut Soup—Kijabe Style (Vegetarian)  
10 fresh tomatoes, chopped
16 oz. tomato paste
6 bouillon cubes (beef or vegetable)
2 onions chopped
1 green pepper chopped
½ to 1 c. smooth or chunky peanut butter
1 T. cayenne pepper ground—or more if you like it hotter  

Dump all ingredients in a large pan, bring to a boil and simmer an hour OR dump everything in a large slow cooker and cook on low all day—8 hours or so. Serve over rice.    
Nigerian Groundnut Soup with Meat Just add 2-3 lbs. of cubed beef to above ingredients (cheapest boneless cut—let butcher cube it for you—no charge!)   Nigerian Groundnut Soup with Meat Just add 1-2 lbs. of cubed beef to above ingredients. Cook till meat is tender (cheapest boneless cut—let butcher cube it for you—no charge!)  
Efo (Nigerian Spinach)
1    32 oz. bag of frozen chopped spinach
2    10 oz. bags frozen chopped onions
1     T.  olive oil or other oil
Salt to taste
Pepper to taste
Heat oil in large sauce pan.  Add onions and sauté until thawed.  Sprinkle generous amount of salt and pepper on onions.  Stir in spinach and add more salt and pepper.  Reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 45 minutes—hour, stirring regularly to avoid sticking.
Efo (Nigerian Spinach)
4 or 5 bunches fresh spinach, chopped
4 chopped fresh onions
1     T.  olive oil or other oil
Salt to taste
Pepper to taste
Remove stems from spinach before chopping leaves. Heat oil in large sauce pan.  Add onions and sauté until thawed.  Sprinkle generous amount of salt and pepper on onions.  Stir in spinach and add more salt and pepper.  Reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 45 minutes—hour, stirring regularly to avoid sticking.
Black-eyed Peas
(Until I ran into a long-time Nigeria/Sierra Leone missionary friend buying canned peas for a Nigerian dinner, I used dried black-eyed peas. She informed me that canned tasted much better!)

3 or 4 cans of black-eyed peas
Black pepper to taste

Dump cans with some of the liquid into a pan. Add pepper and heat through.
Beans (Cow Peas or Black-eyed Peas)

1 lb (1/2 kilo) dried cow peas
Black pepper to taste

Cover peas with water. Add pepper and cook in slow cooker on low all day or on a stove until done—several hours.

When we lived in Nigeria a favorite cookbook for many expatriates and missionaries was From the Crocodiles: from the International Women’s Club Kaduna, Nigeria. Recipes Can be found at https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/read/28708646/the-crocodile-cookbook-ecwa-evangel-hospital Accessed 18 Oct 2019.

When deciding to make lasagna in Kigali, Rwanda, assembling all the ingredients was a problem. After sharing this issue via email, a missionary friend suggested the Crocodile cookbook recipe for making cottage cheese from boiled milk and a little vinegar—problem solved!!

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